Ingress Definition

The IP Code – International Protection Rating

This rating classifies the degrees of protection provided against the intrusion of solid objects (including body parts like hands and fingers), dust, accidental contact, and water in electrical enclosures. The standard aims to provide users more detailed information than vague marketing terms such as waterproof.

The 1st digit indicates the level of protection that the enclosure provides against access to hazardous parts (e.g., electrical conductors, moving parts) and the ingress of solid foreign objects.

1st Digit - Protection against solid objects

Object Size Protected Against:
Effective Against:
No protection
No protection against contact and ingress of objects
Less than 50 mm
Any large surface of the body, such as the back of a hand, but no protection against deliberate contact with a body part
Less than 12.5 mm
Fingers or similar objects
Less than 2.5 mm
Tools, thick wires, etc.
Less than 1 mm
Most wires, screws, etc.
Dust protected
Ingress of dust is not entirely prevented, but it must not enter in sufficient quantity to interfere with the satisfactory operation of the equipment; complete protection against contact
Dust tight
No ingress of dust; complete protection against contact

The 2nd digit shows the protection of the equipment inside the enclosure against harmful ingress of water.

2nd Digit - Protection against liquids

Protected Against:
Not protected
No protection
Dripping water
Dripping water (vertically falling drops) shall have no harmful effect
Dripping water when tilted up to 15°
Vertically dripping water shall have no harmful effect when the enclosure is tilted at an angle up to 15° from its normal position
Spraying water
Water falling as a spray at any angle up to 60° from the vertical shall have no harmful effect
Splashing water
Water splashing against the enclosure from any direction shall have no harmful effect
Water jets
Water projected by a nozzle against enclosure from any direction shall have no harmful effects
Powerful water jets
Water projected in powerful jets against the enclosure from any direction shall have no harmful effects
Immersion up to 1 meter
Ingress of water in harmful quantity shall not be possible when the enclosure is immersed in water under defined conditions of pressure and time (up to 1 meter of submersion for 30 minutes)
Immersion beyond 1 meter
The equipment is suitable for continuous immersion in water under conditions which shall be specified by the manufacturer. NOTE: Normally, this will mean that the equipment is hermetically sealed. However, with certain types of equipment, it can mean that water can enter but only in such a manner that produces no harmful effects.

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